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戴斌:中国景区流量管理中的法律、行政和技术

2018-05-31 来源:中国旅游研究院      [ ] [打印]浏览次数 : 1444

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       景区过载以及由此而来的流量管理,是全球旅游业共同面临的难题,中国同样面临这个世界性问题。景区过载普遍存在,而热门景区在热点时间,或有热点事件时更加如此。中国是人口大国,人口基数近14亿,国内旅游人数超50亿人次 ,加上入境旅游的1.4亿人次,庞大的人口基数和旅游市场规模,导致中国旅游景区游客接待的基数远超任何一个国家,进一步加大了景区治理的综合难度。刚刚过去的五一假期,中国接待的国内游客达1.47亿人次,实现国内旅游收入871.6亿元,同比分别增长9.3%和10.2%。部分热点景区人山人海的情况越发严重,如颐和园接待游客37.4万人次,泰山接待游客18.3万人次。中国旅游业尚处于大众旅游发展的初级阶段,观光旅游是主体,面对全国各地涌入北京的游客,他们都希望参观天安门、故宫、颐和园等热门景区,我们很难对他们说“不”。我们还需要面对不文明旅游、强买强卖、不诚信经营和欺诈消费等现实问题,这些问题与景区超载的叠加,进一步加剧了中国旅游景区治理的难度。我们的治理既要研究、借鉴国际通行的惯例和规则,也要在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的指导下,以人民为中心,走综合治理的路子,综合应用法律、行政和技术手段。

       景区流量管理,首先需要依靠法律。2013年,我们有了第一部《旅游法》,第45条明确要求“景区接待旅游者不得超过景区主管部门核定的最大承载量。景区应当公布景区主管部门核定的最大承载量,制定和实施旅游者流量控制方案,并可以采取门票预约等方式,对景区接待旅游者的数量进行控制。旅游者数量可能达到最大承载量时,景区应当提前公告并同时向当地人民政府报告,景区和当地人民政府应当及时采取疏导、分流等措施。”这是中国治理景区过载和流量控制最重要的法律依据。除了《旅游法》,还有一些国务院颁布执行的、涉旅行政法规,如《风景名胜区条例》、《旅行社管理条例》、《导游人员管理条例》等,分别对景区的接待容量、旅游中的安全问题和旅游服务品质提出了规范要求。民事法律和刑事法律对于公共场所和人员聚集区域的安全管理,如群众性集聚所导致的踩踏、垮塌等事件,都有相应的法律规定。

       景区流量管理,还需要发挥以党领政、党政统筹的治理优势。中国景区治理中的行政,并非简单的政府行政,而是由中国共产党领导、以人民为中心的国家治理体系综合施力。东西南北中,党政军民学,党是领导一切的。旅游业发展和景区流量管理,同样离不开中国共产党领导下国家意志的遂行和行政力量的发挥,这体现在涉旅涉景区的法律法规的制定,体现在各地的发展规划,也体现在各景区治理中的综合执法,包括一定阶段的、集中性的执法。只有依靠中国共产党的领导和各地的行政力量,景区的容量控制、旺季的游客疏导、景区的商贩治理、社区的共建共享等问题,才能得到有效的解决。今年4月,中国正式组建了文化和旅游部,旅游行政执法的统筹和协调力度进一步加强。加上之前有些地方已经建立的旅游市场综合执法队伍、旅游警察、旅游巡回法庭、工商旅游分局等,景区行政管理的专业队伍基本成型。

       中国旅游景区的治理,具有一定的特殊性,既需要依法治理,又要在特定时期采取行政手段来解决阶段性的问题,比如游客黑名单制度和旅游志愿者制度,就是一种创造。2016年,国家旅游局发布了《关于旅游不文明行为记录管理暂行办法》,将有不文明行为的游客列入黑名单,以此约束游客的出游行为。黑名单制度的出现,是国家借助行政手段解决当下旅游发展中阶段性问题的中国探索。旅游志愿者制度始于2015年,设立旅游志愿者是为了更好的服务和监督。现在全国已有5万多名旅游志愿者在旅游志愿者平台上注册,未来三年预计将有100万名注册的旅游志愿者,深圳一个城市已有6000多名旅游志愿者。旅游志愿者正成为各地旅游节假日、旅游活动和重大涉旅活动的重要保障力量。

       中国的治理,之所以需要强有力的行政手段,还有一个重要的原因,即依托国家所有的自然资源、历史文化资源、农林水利资源开发建设的景区,事实上存在着部门争权、地方争利的多重博弈,必须在中国共产党的领导下,才能有效协调解决部门权力分割和地方利益平衡问题。李克强总理在今年的政府工作报告中提出要降低国有重点景区门票价格,这是为了保障国民旅游权利,发挥景区公益属性的重大行政举措。一方面要坚决贯彻执行中央的决定,另一方面也要对可能出现的景区流量加大和服务质量下降做出应对预警。长期来看,既要加强对已有景区的流量管理,也要不断增加供给,为旅游市场提供更多的优质供给。中国已经确定了国家公园体制,并推出了10个试点项目,国家文化公园政策也在研究中,加上国家旅游度假区、历史文化街区、特色小镇等新型旅游供给,在一定程度上可以缓解传统景区的流量过载压力。无论是存量优化,还是增量建设,景区流量治理如果离开了党的领导,离开了公安、安全、城管、文化和旅游等相关部门的协调推进,很多理想目标是无法实现的,这是中国国情和大众旅游时代所决定的,也是具有中国特色的旅游行政治理体系存在的原因。

       景区流量管理,还需要技术手段的支持。技术是提高景区治理效率的有效路径,主要有两个应用方向:一是通过制定标准引导、规范景区运营中的企业和游客行为;二是借助互联网、云计算、大数据、物联网等现代科技,实现对景区客流的宏观调控和微观管理。2015年,国家旅游局发布了《景区最大承载量核定工作导则》。2017年,《风景名胜区管理通用标准》和《景区游客高峰时段应对规范》相继发布,国家和地方旅游行政管理部门和专业机构努力完善旅游信息基础,建立旅游目的地智慧旅游管理体系,其中就包含对景区过载控制和流量智慧管理、门票预约制度、客流预测和引导体系、流量实时监控及调控体系等,这些措施经过实践检验,均已取得了良好的效果。

       在景区流量管理体系优化的探索过程中,中国愿意借鉴各国、各地区的成功经验,也愿意分享我们的理念和实践。在中国共产党的领导下,以法律法规为治理基础,以行政体系为治理依托,以科技和标准为治理工具,努力探索景区治理的中国道路。

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       Legislative, Administrative, and Technological Approaches in Strengthening Tourism Flows Management in China’s Scenic Spots

       Scenic spots overflow and difficulties in flows management incurred are shared challenges in the global tourism industry. China suffers overflow in scenic spots around the country. It becomes much the case for popular scenic spots during special events or peak tourism time. China has a base population of nearly 1.4 billion. The number of domestic trips in the country exceeds 5 billion trips. In terms of international visitor arrivals in China, around 140million visitors were counted. With such a huge base population and the mass market, China boasts a larger base of tourists than any other countries, which increases the overall difficulty in scenic spots governance. In the Labor Day holiday this year, China saw 147 million domestic visitors and the domestic tourism revenue of 87.16 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 9.3% and 10.2% respectively. Some popular attractions went through serious overflow during the holiday. The Summer Palace received 374,000 tourists and Mount Tai 183,000 tourists. China’s tourism remains at the beginning stage of mass tourism where most visitors travel by sightseeing. It’s hard to say NO to visitors who came from all over the country to see the Tiananmen Square, the Forbidden City, the Summer Palace and other popular attractions. Such a status quo along with problems like inappropriate tourism behaviors, forced sale, the lack of integrity, and price fraud make it even harder to govern scenic spots in the country. We should study and learn from our counterparts in how they practice international rules and standards in tourism governance. It is also essential that we follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and adopt the people-centered mindset to come up with legislative, administrative, and technological approaches in comprehensive tourism governance. 

       We should first resort to the legislative approach to govern tourism flows in scenic spots. China issued its first Tourism Law in 2013. There in Article 45, it reads “The number of tourists received by a scenic spot may not exceed the maximum carrying capacity determined by the competent department of the scenic spot. The scenic spot shall publish the maximum carrying capacity determined by the competent department of scenic spots, develop and implement the tourism flows control plans, and may take such means as ticket reservation to control the number of tourists received by the scenic spot. When the number of tourist is likely to reach the maximum carrying capacity, the scenic spot shall make an announcement in advance and report to local government at the same time, and the scenic spot and local people’s government shall take measures divert the flows of tourists in a timely manner.” This piece of article serves as the most significant legal base when we deal with tourist overflow and flows control. 

       In addition to the Tourism Law, there are also some administrative regulations promulgated and implemented by the State Council such as the Regulations on Scenic Sites, the Regulations on the Administration of Travel Agencies and the Regulations on the Management of Tour Guides, which cover reception capacity of scenic spots, tourism safety and tourism service quality respectively. Civil law and criminal law also list out corresponding legal provisions for safety management in public places and areas where people gather, especially in dealing with stampede and collapse caused by mass gathering.

       Tourism flows management should also make full use of China’s advantage that the Communist Party of China leads the government and that they coordinate in administration. Tourism scenic spots in China are not simply under government administration. It is included in a comprehensive national system where the party takes the lead and where people are put at the center. The Party takes the lead in the  development of each province and sectors including the party, government, army, the people, and education. Development of the industry and flows governance also rely on such leadership under the guidance of the Party. It could be seen in the development plans of provinces, in the promulgation of laws and regulations and comprehensive execution of them in issues related to tourism and scenic spots, which may include strengthening execution in specific time. Only by relying on administration and guidance of the Party could we effectively tackle problems including scenic spots capacity control, visitors management in peak seasons, vendor and business governance in scenic spots, and development as well as resource sharing in communities. In April this year, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism is formally established, which represents that the country has stepped up its coordination efforts in administration and law enforcement related to tourism development. In addition, some provinces has built up law enforcement teams, tourism police, tourism circuit courts, and industrial and commercial branches related to tourism. All these indicate that professional management teams for tourism scenic spots have basically taken shape.

       Law enforcement is indeed required for scenic spots governance. Besides, it also depends on some special administrative approaches in specific development stages. The blacklisted visitor system and tourism volunteers are innovative ways that we introduced. In 2016, the National Tourism Administration issued the Interim Measures on the Management of Records of Uncivilized Behavior of Tourism and blacklisted tourists with uncivilized behavior, thereby restraining their behavior. Such an approach shows China’s exploration of tackling problems in the current stage of tourism development through administrative ways. The tourism volunteer system started in 2015 and volunteers are expected to provide better service to and supervision over visitors. There are more than 50,000 tourism volunteers nationwide registered on the tourism volunteer platform. Simulations of the registered volunteer numbers in the next three years may exceed 1 million. There are more than 6,000 tourism volunteers solely in Shenzhen. Tourism volunteers are becoming important guarantee during holidays, festivals, tourism activities and major tourism activities around the country.

       There’s another reason why China's governance of tourism development requires powerful administrative means. For scenic spots that are developed on the basis of natural resources, historical and cultural resources, and agriculture, forestry, and water resources that are nationally owned, there is in fact a division of power between different departments or provincial governments. That is why the Party leadership is needed to balance interest and coordinate power division. In this year's government work report, Prime Minister Li Keqiang proposed to reduce ticket price in state-owned key scenic spots. This is a major administrative measure to protect the rights of citizens to travel and to display public attributes of the scenic spots. On the one hand, we must resolutely implement decisions of the central government. On the other hand, we must also be alert to respond to possible increase in tourism flows and declining service quality. In the long run, it is necessary to strengthen the flows management of existing scenic spots and also to continuously increase the supply so as to provide more high-quality supply to the tourism market. China has already established a national park system and has launched 10 pilot projects. The national cultural park policy is also under research and study. Besides, development of new tourism supplies such as national tourist resorts, historical and cultural blocks, and specialty towns can also effectively alleviate pressure brought by tourist overflow. Either by optimizing the inventory or incremental construction, if we work on flows control without the party’s leadership and coordination of the police, security forces, urban management, culture and tourism departments, many targets could not get achieved. It is determined by China’s national conditions in the era of mass tourism. It is also a powerful exploration of the tourism administrative governance system with Chinese characteristics.

       Governance of tourism flows management also requires technological support. Technology is an effective way to improve the efficiency. It is applied in two ways. First, it helps standardize the behaviors of enterprises and tourists in scenic spots; Second, to achieve macro-control and micro-management of tourism flows in scenic spots, modern technologies such as the Internet, cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of things play a huge role. In 2015, the National Tourism Administration issued the Guidelines for the Verification of the Maximum Capacity of Scenic Spots. In 2017, China issued the General Standards for the Management of Scenic Spots and the Rules for Reaction during Peak Hours. National and local tourism administrations and related organizations work hard to build the base for tourism profile and build smart tourism management systems. These efforts cover overflow control and smart management of flows, ticket reservation system, passenger flows forecasting and guidance system, real-time flows monitoring and control system, etc. They have achieved good results through practices.

       In exploring ways to optimize the flows management system, China is ready to learn from successful experiences of other countries and regions, and is willing to share our ideas and practices. We will continue to explore the road to the governance of scenic spots management in China under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, with laws and regulations as the basis for governance, with the administrative system as the back for governance, and with science and technology and standards as tools of governance. 

责任编辑:左靓